ANPOR Annual Conference Proceedings https://journal.anpor.net/index.php/proceeding Asian Network for Public Opinion Research (ANPOR) en-US ANPOR Annual Conference Proceedings Research on Formation Factors of Infodemic in the Internet Environment https://journal.anpor.net/index.php/proceeding/article/view/166 <p><span class="fontstyle0">The infodemic is a secondary epidemic in the information environment that accompanies the Corona Virus Disease 2019(COVID-19) epidemic. This article focuses on the development process from the epidemic information to the infodemic and the factors that affect the formation of the infodemic in the social media environment. The infodemic can be seen as a complex field of public opinion driven by the epidemic of infectious diseases and wrapped around the content of the epidemic. In this field, the authenticity of information is difficult to distinguish, causing panic and anxiety in people's hearts. Taken together, the content of the infodemic mainly includes the ordinary epidemic information and the rumors. Ordinary epidemic information refers to accurate, relevant content that people need to understand after major public health emergencies. Rumors arise when information disclosure is insufficient or information disclosure is overloaded and exceeds the public's ability to bear. It is easy to spread widely in a social media environment where the gatekeeper mechanism is not perfect. The two are jointly structured into a specific public media opinion field, which has its relative autonomy and logical relationship in social media. The infodemic constitutes a complex field of public opinion, and the compound effect of its key elements- time and channels- promotes the formation of the infodemic. On the one hand, time is a significant factor that affects the construction of the infodemic. With time, the infodemic is at various stages of development, showing different development characteristics. On the other hand, social media's development </span><span class="fontstyle0">and popularization have become a channel factor for the infodemic. The article summarizes the various development stages of the infodemic and the role played by social media and provide a reference for the prevention and control of the infodemic: The infodemic has a particular impact on the development of the infectious disease epidemic itself, the regular operation of the social system, government control, and public psychology. Effective and targeted measures must be taken in time; otherwise, the infodemic will become more complicated and severe.</span> </p> Yu SUN Xiao CHEN Copyright (c) 2021 ANPOR Annual Conference Proceedings 2021-02-28 2021-02-28 44 44 Opportunities and Challenges of OTT (Over-The-Top) Services in Thailand https://journal.anpor.net/index.php/proceeding/article/view/164 <p><span class="fontstyle0">Advances in Hi-speed Internet technology have resulted in a change in media consumption behavior. Today, more and more consumers turn to OTT (Over-the-Top) media instead of watching TV, cable, or satellite more than before. This is because consumers are free to choose what, when, and where to watch. It relies on a mobile phone and an internet signal. Together with the current COVID-</span><span class="fontstyle2">19 </span><span class="fontstyle0">epidemic crisis, as a result, consumers need to have a social distance or work at home, making the use of OTT services exponential growth. This article uses the document analysis method to analyze the relevant information from research and news articles to explain the opportunities and challenges of OTT services in Thailand; findings revealed many opportunities for OTT's growth in Thailand. The 5G technology launches by ISPs this year will drive and promote OTT services with faster data streaming quality, supporting viewing of ultra-high definition (UHD) content. Thus, OTT is an efficient and effective marketing tool in an era of intense competition because OTT platform providers use cutting-edge technology to the target consumer. It is one of the brand's most popular alternatives to marketing communication. However, OTT services are at risk of being regulated by government agencies in the near future, which is challenging.</span> </p> Ninnet Kaewrot Pichapop Bunleas Vichayuth Sucharitchan Copyright (c) 2021 ANPOR Annual Conference Proceedings 2021-02-28 2021-02-28 21 21 The Influence of Social Media (Virtual Reality and Augmented Reality) and Reviewer on Cultural Tourism Promoting Model: Literature Review https://journal.anpor.net/index.php/proceeding/article/view/168 <p>Reviewer plays an influential role in the cultural tourism promoting model. Reviewer is a literature review from related documents to study the models of social media use and to review for promoting cultural tourism. Different channels of social media, including Search Engine, Social network, Website, Web board, Blog, and YouTube influence on tourism. Furthermore, review is useful information from different types of reviewers, including authors or critics who expressed their personal comments to descript benefits, drawbacks, and impressions after the trip. These could be used as supporting information for other's decision-making. This can be mostly seen from YouTube, integrating Virtual Reality (VR) and Augmented Reality (AR) to visualize the reality in order to attract tourists to experience the local atmosphere, culture, and way of life of individual tourist attractions. However, the use of social media to broadcast the travel experience and exposure to comments of tourists can indicate the high level of the relationship between social media and tourism. Broadcasting negative experiences of cultural tourism could lead to unpopularity. In addition, the dimensions of stimulus for cultural tourism, including marketing communication, social media-based travel communication, and recommendations from acquaintances is one of the unique dimensions influencing tourism. This study explicitly illustrates the development of the cultural tourism promoting model.</p> Oraporn Suwannasank Anchalee Pichedpan Jantima Kheokao Copyright (c) 2021 ANPOR Annual Conference Proceedings 2021-03-26 2021-03-26 55 55 “SPECIAL” Model: A Personalized Loyalty Program for the LGBT Customer https://journal.anpor.net/index.php/proceeding/article/view/165 <p><span class="fontstyle0">The research is an integrative review based on an LGBT customer loyalty program, consumer behavior, customer relationship management, and communication published in six databases totaling 650 papers from 2015 to 2020 such as Communication &amp; Mass Media Complete, Emerald Insight, ERIC, British Library, Gale Virtual Reference Library, and Google Scholar. Integrative content analysis was conducted on research, textbooks in marketing communication, and related fields to identify the factors that can effectively draw prospective LGBT customers. The theoretical model “SPECIAL” was proposed which responds to LGBT special and personal needs. The model comprises seven factors that reflect the characteristics of the LGBT. They are Sociality (S); Personalization (P); Emotional (E); Consumer-Centric (C); Integrated Marketing Communication (IMC); Personal Selling (I), Attitude of Brand (A); and Loyalty Program (L). This model can increase the brand experience of the LGBT customer. A further study to test the viability of the model is recommended.</span> </p> Ronnaphop Nopsuwan Jantima Kheokao Copyright (c) 2021 ANPOR Annual Conference Proceedings 2021-02-28 2021-02-28 31 31 Sino-Egypt Relations in the Context of BRI https://journal.anpor.net/index.php/proceeding/article/view/163 <p><span class="fontstyle0">Sino-Egypt diplomatic relationships were established in May 1956. In 2013, China launched the "Belt and Road" Initiative (BRI) and welcomed countries along the route to contribute in cooperation in the BRI framework. In 2014, the new-elected President of Egypt, Sisi, visited China, and the two countries improved their bilateral relations to a comprehensive strategic partnership. In 2016, Egypt launched a new strategy for national development, "Egypt Vision 2030". Therefore, the two countries are cooperating according to these two planes. This paper analyzes Sino-Egypt relations in the context of BRI. When China proposed the Belt and Road Initiative in 2013, Egypt was one of the first countries to sign the agreement. Sino-Egyptian relations have significantly developed since the early 2010s. Based on a solid foundation, China's President Xi Jinping and Al-Sissi sealed an "integral strategic partnership" between the two nations in 2014. This research paper provides an overview of this evolution and explores fields of cooperation between the two countries. The report sheds light on collaboration in bilateral areas, especially in the Belt and Road Initiative framework launched by China. The paper explores how Egypt and China reinforce each other in their common search for<br>economic development.</span></p> Adawi Amr Adawi Ahmed Copyright (c) 2021 ANPOR Annual Conference Proceedings 2021-02-28 2021-02-28 1 1